Fort Named for Distinguished Confederate Commander
installation was named in honor of Lt. Gen. Ambrose Powell
Hill, a Virginia native who distinguished himself as a
Confederate commander during the Civil War. Rising from colonel
to major general in three months, General Hill took command of one
of Lees three corps in 1863. Two years later, as Grants
forces laid siege to Petersburg, Va., General Hill was mortally
wounded as he rode his stallion, Champ, to the front. He had not
yet reached his 40th birthday.
One week later, Lee surrendered to
Grant at Appomattox. A fortnight later, John Wilkes Booth was killed at the Garrett
farmhouse, which was situated just beyond the present boundaries of the fort.
About the Installation
It is used year-round for
military training of both active and reserve troops of the Army, Navy, Marines, and Air
Force, as well as other government agencies. These include the Departments of State and
Interior; U.S. Customs Service; and federal, state and local security and law enforcement
The installation has also
hosted the Boy Scouts of America National Jamboree in 1981, 1985, 1989,
1993, 1997, 2001 and 2005. Approximately 42,000 Boy Scouts and Scout
leaders are expected for the next jamboree in 2010.
First Military Maneuvers, July 1941
Fort A.P. Hill
In the spring of
1940, the War Plans Division of the Army General Staff developed a plan to raise
a national army of four million men to conduct simultaneous operations in the Pacific and
Europe theaters. In July 1940, a movement began to locate an area of approximately 60,000
acres, independent of any post, and lying somewhere between the Potomac River and the
upper Chesapeake Bay.
No one seems to know who
first suggested Caroline County as a site for heavy weapons and maneuver training
facilities. What is known is that Lt. Col. Oliver Marston, an artillery officer stationed
in Richmond and acting as an agent of the Third Corps Area commander, made a detailed
investigation of the Bowling Green area in September 1940. He enthusiastically recommended
that the War Department procure the Caroline site.
Fort A.P. Hill was
established as an Army training facility on June 11, 1941, pursuant to War Department
General Order No. 5. In its 1st year, the installation was used as a maneuver area for the
II Army Corps and for three activated National Guard divisions from Mid-Atlantic states.
In the autumn of 1942, Fort A.P. Hill was the staging area for the headquarters and corps
troops of Major General Pattons Task Force A, which invaded French Morocco in North
Africa. During the early years of World War II, the post continued to be a training site
for corps and division-sized units. Commencing in 1944, field training for Officer
Candidate School and enlisted replacements from nearby Forts Lee, Eustis, and Belvoir was
During the Korean War,
Fort A.P. Hill was a major staging area for units deploying to Europe, including the VII
Corps Headquarters and the Third Armored Cavalry Regiment. The fort was the major
center for Engineer Officer Candidate School training (students from Fort Belvoir) during the
Fort A.P. Hill today is a
training and maneuver center focused on providing realistic joint and
combined arms training. All branches of the Armed Forces train on Fort
A.P. Hill and the installation has also hosted training from foreign
allies. Whether it's providing support for a mobilization or helping units
train for deployment, Fort A.P. Hill's state-of-the-art training
facilities and ranges, and professional support staff, continue to ensure
America's Armed Forces have the edge needed to win in the 21st Century
Historical Installation Diaries
The Fort A.P. Hill Installation Diaries were kept from April 1941 through April 1989. The purpose of these diaries was to record the creation and daily operations of what was then called "A.P. Hill Military Reservation". The Diaries report when specific units arrive/depart and what A.P. Hill's daily average strength was. They also captured any significant events that happened on or around the installation.
The historical Fort A.P. Hill Installation Diaries have been scanned and can be downloaded:
Fort A.P. Hill Installation Diary : June 1941 – December 1961
Fort A.P. Hill Installation Diary : January 1962 – December 1971
Fort A.P. Hill Installation Diary : January 1972 – December 1979
Fort A.P. Hill Installation Diary : January 1980 – December 1986
Fort A.P. Hill Installation Diary : January 1987 – April 1989
Please note, these Optical character recognition (OCR) PDF files are large and will take some time to download.